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  • AdSense

    Google AdSense is a program run by Google that allows publishers in the Google Network of content sites to serve automatic text, image, video, or interactive media advertisements, that are targeted to site content and audience. These advertisements are administered, sorted, and maintained by Google. They can generate revenue on either a per-click or per-impression basis. Google beta-tested a cost-per-action service, but discontinued it in October 2008 in favor of a DoubleClick offering (also owned by Google). In Q1 2014, Google earned US $3.4 billion ($13.6 billion annualized), or 22% of total revenue, through Google AdSense. AdSense is a participant in the AdChoices program, so AdSense ads typically include the triangle-shaped AdChoices icon. This program also operates on HTTP cookies. Over 11.1 million websites use AdSense.

    The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program, which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction. AdSense commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (i.e., a bid not observable by competitors). Additionally, for any given click received, advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid. Google currently shares 68% of revenue generated by AdSense with content network partners, and 51% of revenue generated by AdSense with AdSense for Search partners. On June 18, 2015, Google announced rebranding of AdSense with a new logo.

    Paul Buchheit, the founder of Gmail, had the idea to run ads within Google's e-mail service. But he and others say it was Susan Wojcicki, with the backing of Sergey Brin, who organized the team that adapted that idea into an enormously successful product. By early 2005 AdSense accounted for an estimated 15 percent of Google's total revenues. In 2009, Google AdSense announced that it would now be offering new features, including the ability to "enable multiple networks to display ads". In February 2010, Google AdSense started using search history in contextual matching to offer more relevant ads. On January 21, 2014, Google AdSense launched Direct Campaigns, a tool where publishers may directly sell ads. This feature was retired on February 10, 2015.

    There are various ad sizes available for content ads. The ads can be simple text, image, animated image, flash video, video, or rich media ads. At most ad sizes, users can change whether to show both text and multimedia ads or just one of them. As of November 2012, a grey arrow appears beneath AdSense text ads for easier identification. Google made a policy update regarding the number of ads per page, the three ads per page limit has been removed.

    AdSense for video allows publishers with video content (e.g., video hosting websites) to generate revenue using ad placements from Google's extensive advertising network. The publisher is able to decide what type of ads are shown with their video inventory. Formats available include linear video ads (pre-roll or post-roll), overlay ads that display AdSense text and display ads over the video content, and the TrueView format. Publishers can also display companion ads - display ads that run alongside video content outside the player. AdSense for video is for publishers running video content within a player and not for YouTube publishers.

    AdSense for mobile content allowed publishers to generate earnings from their mobile websites using targeted Google advertisements. Just like AdSense for content, Google matches advertisements to the content of a website in this case, a mobile website. Instead of traditional JavaScript code, technologies such as Java and Objective-C are used. As of February 2012, AdSense for Mobile Content was rolled into the core AdSense for Content offering to better reflect the lessening separation between desktop and mobile content.

    AdSense for domains allows advertisements to be placed on domain names that have not been developed. This offers domain name owners a way to monetize (make money from) domain names that are otherwise dormant or not in use. AdSense for domains is currently being offered to all AdSense publishers, but it wasn't always available to all. On December 12, 2008, TechCrunch reported that AdSense for Domains is available for all US publishers. On February 22, 2012, Google announced that it was shutting down its Hosted AdSense for Domains program.

    Some webmasters create websites tailored to lure searchers from Google and other engines onto their AdSense website to make money from clicks. Such websites often contain nothing but a large amount of interconnected, automated content (e.g., a directory with content from the Open Directory Project, or "scraper" websites relying on RSS feeds for content). Possibly the most popular form of such "AdSense farms" are splogs (spam blogs), which are poorly written content centered around known high-paying keywords. Many of these websites reuse content from other websites, such as Wikipedia, to attract visitors. These and related approaches are considered to be search engine spam and can be reported to Google. A Made for AdSense (MFA) website or webpage has little or no content, but is filled with advertisements so that users have no choice but to click on advertisements. Such pages were tolerated in the past, but due to complaints, Google now disables such accounts. There have also been reports of Trojan horses engineered to produce counterfeit Google advertisements that are formatted looking like legitimate ones. The Trojan uploads itself onto an unsuspecting user's computer through a webpage and then replaces the original advertisements with its own set of malicious advertisements.

    There were numerous complaints in online discussion forums about a difference in treatment for publishers from China and India, namely that sites from those locations are required to be active for six months before being eligible for AdSense. Due to alleged concerns about click fraud, Google AdSense has been criticized by some search engine optimization firms as a large source of what Google calls "invalid clicks", in which one company clicks on a rival's search engine advertisements to drive up the other company's costs. The payment terms for webmasters have also been criticized. Google withholds payment until an account reaches US$100.